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Males are 10 times more likely to have groin hernia surgery than females, thus females are underrepresented in most studies. In a Swedish hernia registry including >4000 female patients, compared with male patients, females were 30 percent more likely to have chronic groin pain and 18 percent reported chronic pain affecting daily activity at one year after groin hernia repair. Risk factors for chronic pain in females were high body mass index, high American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, and femoral hernia, but not surgical methods or emergency versus elective surgery.